This structure requires that any in-text citation (i.e., within the body of the text) be accompanied by a corresponding reference list entry. In this article, we estimate total human biomass, its distribution by world region and the proportion of human biomass attributable to overweight and obesity. We obtained estimates of mean (and SD) body mass index (BMI) from the. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. Marr for helpful discussions.
In Asia, one tonne of human biomass corresponds to 17 adults. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, you may include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual. Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors: country-level data and comparable estimates. If all countries had the same BMI distribution as USA, the energy required to maintain obese biomass would increase by 481, corresponding to the energy requirements of 137 million adults. Electronic Sources If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Sometimes, however, this is impossible. Larger respiratory droplets will undergo gravitational settling faster than they evaporate, contaminating surfaces and leading to contact transmission. After evidence revealed that airborne transmission by asymptomatic individuals might be a key driver in the global spread of covid-19, the CDC recommended the use of cloth face coverings. Airborne transmission could account, in part, for the high secondary transmission rates to medical staff, as well as major outbreaks in nursing facilities. Include the persons full name, nation or Indigenous group, location, and any other relevant details before the personal communication, date part of the citation. The biomass of overweight people was calculated as the product of the number of overweight people and their average body mass. Malthus expressed his concern at a time when the amount of food energy that could be harvested from a given amount of land was constrained by the available agricultural technologies. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults.
In the battle against covid-19, Taiwan (population 24 million, first covid-19 case ) did not implement a lockdown during the pandemic, yet maintained a low incidence of 441 cases and 7 deaths (as of ). Research by Berndt (1981a) revealed strong correlations. Firstly, in countries where data on average BMI, height and its standard deviation were unavailable, we used a regression model to estimate the missing parameters. Viruses can attach to other particles such as dust and pollution, which can modify the aerodynamic characteristics and increase dispersion. Acknowledgments: The authors thank. Smaller droplets and aerosols will evaporate faster than they can settle, are buoyant, and thus can be affected by air currents, which can transport them over longer distances. Furthermore, because of the lack of data describing the distribution of BMI in relation to high, we assumed zero covariance between BMI and height squared. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7 which released in October 2019.
1 or a combination of these. This site content may not be copied, reproduced, or redistributed without the prior written permission of the American Marketing Association or its affiliates. This increase in biomass would increase energy requirements by 261 kcal/day/adult, which is equivalent to the energy requirement of 473 million adults. (Funk Kolln, 1992) Personal Communication For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. WHO Global Infobase Team: The SuRF report. North America has 6 of the world population but 34 of biomass due to obesity. If all countries had the same age-sex BMI distribution as the USA, total human biomass would increase by 58 million tonnes, a 20 increase in global biomass and the equivalent of 935 million people of world average body mass in 2005. Is supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI131424). Is plural, it should always be a substitute for more than one name. CAS PubMed Google Scholar.
Biomass due to obesity would increase by 434. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring Tutoring and APA.d.). The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. WHO surf2 report 7 and estimates of mean height (and SD) for 190 countries from national health examination surveys, primarily the. Asia has the lowest average body mass of any continent (57.7 kg). In Africa and Asia urban populations are increasing more rapidly than rural populations. In the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-CoV-2 it is possible that submicron virus-containing aerosols are being transferred deep into the alveolar region of the lungs, where immune responses seem to be temporarily bypassed.
Author information Affiliations Foundation Year 2 doctor, North Yorkshire and East Coast deanery, 4 Hilton Place, Leeds, LS8 4HE, UK Sarah Catherine Walpole Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK David Prieto-Merino, Phil. North America has 6 of the worlds population but 34 of world biomass due to obesity. Masks provide a critical barrier, reducing the number of infectious viruses in exhaled breath, especially of asymptomatic people and those with mild symptoms ( 12 ) (see the figure). Respiratory infections occur through the transmission of virus-containing droplets ( 5 to 10 m) and aerosols (5 m) exhaled from infected individuals during breathing, speaking, coughing, and sneezing. Finucaine MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, et al: National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and.1 million participants. (Wegener Petty, 1994 a Work by Three or More Authors.
No masking maximizes exposure, whereas universal masking results in the least exposure. Results, in 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI 25 a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5 of global human biomass). Because of the greater purchasing power of more affluent nations (who also have higher average body mass the worst effects of increasing food prices will be experienced by the worlds poor. (Ahmed, 2016 citing Non-Standard Author Categories. Figure 1 Human biomass due to BMI 30 (Countries with more than 1 of human biomass due to BMI 30). The increased global demand for food arising from the increase in body mass is likely to contribute to higher food prices. Our results underscore the need to take body mass into account when considering the ecological implications of population growth. Average body mass globally was 62 kg.